Chicago Notes-Bibliography

The Chicago Manual of Style (16th ed. Ref. Z 253.U69 2010 or online) is composed of two different documentation systems:

  • Notes-Bibliography style: preferred by those in the humanities
  • Author-Date system: preferred by those in the sciences

The examples on this page are in the Notes-Bibliography Style. Be sure to find out from your professor which Chicago documentation system they would like you to use.*

*Note: The Fairfield University History Department requires its students to use Notes-Bibliography style.

Commonly Cited Sources in Chicago: Notes-Bibliography style:

Book | Ebook | Journal Article | Magazine Article | Newspaper Article | Website, Blog or Twitter Posting

E-mail, List-serv or Personal Communication | Audio/Video | Images or Advertisement | Secondary Source

Footnote Information with Examples | Other Citation Resources


Book

Choose a specific book type from the list:

More footnote information

 


Book with One Author

Chicago Manual 14.18


Bibliography:


Footnote:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Title of Book. Place

of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication.

 

Zelizer, Barbie. Remembering to Forget: Holocaust Memory

through the Camera's Eye. Chicago: University of Chicago

Press, 2003.

First Note:

      1. Barbie Zelizer, Remembering to Forget: Holocaust Memory through the Camera's Eye (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003), 7.

Shortened Note:

2. Zelizer, Remembering to Forget, 7.

 

Top


Book with Two or Three Authors

Chicago Manual 14.18


Bibliography:


Footnote:

First Author's Last Name, First Author's First Name, and

Second Author's First Name and Last Name. Title

of Book. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher,

Year of Publication.

Mock, Douglas W., and Geoffrey A. Parker. The Evolution

of Sibling Rivalry. Oxford: Oxford University Press,

1997.

First Note:

2. Douglas W. Mock and Geoffrey A.

Parker, The Evolution of Sibling Rivalry (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997), 72.

 Shortened Note:

3. Mock and Parker, The Evolution of

Sibling Rivalry, 72.

Top


4 or More Authors

Chicago Manual 14.18


Bibliography:


Footnote:

First Author's Last Name, First Author's First Name, Second

Author's First Name and Last Name, Third Author's First

Name and Last Name, Fourth Author's First Name

and Last Name, Fifth Author's First Name and Last Name,

and Sixth Author's First Name and Last Name. Title

of Book. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher,

Year of Publication.

Dasco, Sheryl Tatar, Clifford C. Dasco, Connie U. Brelhan, Kirk

C. Harlow, Margaret S. Jaffee-Neer, Marilyn Rumsey,

and Ellison H. Wittels. Managed Care Answer Book.

New York: Panel Publisher, 1995.

First Note:

17. Sheryl Tatar Dasco et al.,

Managed Care Answer Book (New York: Panel Publishers, 1995), 122.

 

Shortened Note:

18. Sheryl Tatar Dasco et al.,

Managed Care Answer Book, 122.

Top


No Author

Chicago Manual 14.79


Bibliography:


Footnote:

Anonymous. Title. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher.

 Date of Publication.

The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language.

4th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 2000.

Note: If a book is listed as 'anonymous', then that word should be included at the beginning of the citation. If not, use of 'anonymous' should generally be avoided and reference can begin with the title.

First Note:

18. The American Heritage Dictionary

of the English Language, 4th ed. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2000), 6.

 Shortened Note:

19. The American Heritage Dictionary

of the English Language, 4th ed.

Top


Organization as Author

Chicago Manual 14.92


Bibliography:


Footnote:

Name of Organization. Title of Book. Place of Publication:

 Name of Publisher, Year of Publication.

 

American Psychiatric Association. Practice Guideline for the

 Treatment of Patients with Panic Disorder. Washington, DC:

 American Psychiatric Association, 1998.

 

First Note:

12. American Psychiatric Association.

 Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients with Panic Disorder.
(Washington, DC: APA, 1998), 7.

 Shortened Note:

13. American Psychiatric Association.

Practice Guideline, 7.

Top


Preface, Foreword or Introduction

Chicago Manual 14.116


Bibliography:


Footnote:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Preface (or use

Foreword or Introduction) to Title of Book, by Book's Author,

inclusive page numbers. Place of Publication: Name of

Publisher, Date of Publication.

 

Roosevelt, Franklin D., Jr. Foreword to Love, Eleanor: Eleanor

Roosevelt and Her Friends, by Joseph P. Lash, vii-viii.

Garden City, NY: Doubleday and Company, 1982.

 

First Note:

12. Franklin D. Roosevelt Jr.,

foreword to Love, Eleanor: Eleanor Roosevelt and Her Friends, by Joseph P. Lash (Garden City, NY: Doubleday and Company, 1982), vii.


Shortened Note:

13. Roosevelt, foreword, vii.

Top


Book Chapter (Contribution to a Multiauthor Book)

Chicago Manual 14.112


Bibliography:


Footnote:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. "Title of Chapter." In

Title of Book, edited by Name of Editor, inclusive page

numbers. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of

 Publication.

 

Benedict, Karen. "Archival Ethics." In Managing Archives and

Archival Institutions, edited by James Gregory Bradsher,

174-84. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988.

Note: The format and example above are for how to cite a chapter within a book that contains chapters written by different authors. If you are citing one chapter in a book written by a single author, see 14.111 in The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed. for the appropriate citation example.

First Note:

3. Karen Benedict, "Archival

ethics," in Managing Archives and Archival Institutions, ed. James Gregory Bradsher (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998), 176.

 

 

 Shortened Note:

  4. Karen Benedict, "Archival ethics," 176.

 

Top


Edition other than First

Chicago Manual 14.118


Bibliography:


Footnote:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Title of Book. Edition

number ed. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of

Publication.

 

Bukatko, Danuta, and Marvin A. Daehler. Child Development: A

Thematic Approach. 5th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2004.

 

First Note:

8. Danuto Buktatko and Marvin

A. Daehler, Child Development: A Thematic Approach, 5th ed. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2004), 78.

 Shortened Note:

9. Buktatko and Daehler, Child

Development, 78.

Top


Translated Work

Chicago Manual 14.88


Bibliography:


Footnote:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Title of Book.

Translated by Name of Translator(s). Place of Publication:

Name of Publisher, Date of Publication.

 

Freud, Sigmund. The Interpretation of Dreams. Translated by

Joyce Crick. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

First Note:

33. Sigmund, Freud, The

Interpretation of Dreams, trans. Joyce Crick (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), 28.

 Shortened Note:

34. Freud, The Interpretation of

Dreams, 28.

Top


Multivolume Work (Citing Only 1 Volume)

Chicago Manual 14.124 and 14.121


Bibliography:


Footnote:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Title of Multivolume

Work. Vol. Volume Number, Title of Volume. Place of

Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication.

 

Churchill, Winston S. A History of the English-Speaking

The Birth of Britain. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1956.

 

Note: Always give the volume number in an arabic numeral, even if a book has the volume number in a roman numeral or spelled out.

First Note:

39. Winston S. Churchill, A History

 of the English-Speaking Peoples, vol. 1, The Birth of Britain (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1956), 88.

 

Shortened Form:

40. Churchill, A History of the

English-Speaking Peoples, 1:88.

Top


Multivolume Work (Citing all the Volumes)

Chicago Manual 14.121-14.122


Bibliography:


Footnote:

Author's Last name, Author's First Name. Title of Multivolume

Work. Number of Volumes vols. Place of Publication: Name

 of Publisher, Year(s) of Publication.

 

Cook, Blanche Weisen. Eleanor Roosevelt. 2 vols. New York:

Viking, 1992-99.

Note: Always give the volume numbers in arabic numerals, even if the book has the volume numbers in roman numerals or spelled out.

First Note:

38. Blanche Weisen Cook, Eleanor

 Roosevelt (New York: Viking, 1992), 1:52.

 Note: Only give the date for the volume being cited.

If each of the volumes of a multivolume work are titled, then follow the note example below:*

38. Winston S. Churchill, A History

 of the English-Speaking Peoples, vol. 1, The Birth of Britain (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1956), 88.

 Shortened Form:

39. Churchill, A History of the

English-Speaking Peoples, 88.

Top


Encyclopedia Entry

Chicago Manual 14.247-48


Bibliography:


Footnote:

Print Encyclopedia Entry:

Name of Encyclopedia, Edition ed., s.v. "Title of Article."

Encyclopedia Americana, 2006 ed., s.v. "Robot."

Or:

Electronic Encyclopedia Entry:

Name of Encyclopedia. s.v. "Title of Article". Article published

Month Day, Year of Publication. Accessed Month Day, Year

 of Access, URL.

Encyclopedia of Global Religion. s.v. "Kenya". Article published

May 14, 2009. Accessed July 17, 2012, http://www.sage-

ereference.com/view/globalreligion /SAGE.xml.

 

Notes: Well-known encyclopedias are often omitted in the Bibliography and only included in the notes. Above is a more formal example.

For well known references such as Encyclopaedia Britannica, you can omit publisher and location, but the edition must be included. For less known publications, this information should be included.

If items are listed alphabetically, use abbreviation "s.v.", short for sub verbo, or "under the word".

If an electronic encyclopedia, list date of access and URL.

First Note:

Print:

34. Encyclopedia

Americana, 2006 ed., s.v. "Robot."

Or:

Electronic:

34. Encyclopedia of Global

 Religion, s.v. "Kenya," published May 14, 2009, http://www.sage-ereference. com/view/globalreligion /SAGE.xml.

 

Shortened Note:

Print:

35. Encyclopedia Americana,

 s.v "Robot."

Electronic:

35. Encyclopedia of Global

Religion, s.v. "Kenya."

Top


Ebook

Choose the Ebook type from the list:

Note: For the treatment of author variations, such as multiple authors, corporate authors, or no author listed, please see Book citation as a model for this element of the citation.

More footnote information


E-book (Chapter):

Chicago Manual 14.66, 14.17, and 14.111-14.117


Bibliography:


Footnote:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. "Title of Chapter." In

Title of Book, edited by Name of Editor, inclusive page

numbers. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher,

Year of Publication. Format of e-book.

 

Khan, Paul. "A Civil Religion of Human Rights?" In Civil Religion,

Human Rights and International Relations: Connecting

People Across Cultures and Traditions, edited by Porsdam

Helle, 49-65. Northampton: Edward Elgar, 2012. EBL e-book.

 

Note: The format and example above are for how to cite a chapter within a book that contains chapters written by different authors. If you are citing one chapter in a book written by a single author, see 14.111 in The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed. for the appropriate citation example.

Include last modified date and URL if applicable.

 

First Note:

5. Paul Khan, "A Civil Religion

 of Human Rights?" in Civil Religion, Human Rights and International Relations: Connecting people Across Cultures and Traditions, e-book, 49-65.

Shortened Note:

6. Khan, "A Civil Religion of

Human Rights?," 49-65.

Note: When citing an e-book that does not have fixed page numbers, use a chapter number, section heading or another reference marker in the note.

Top


E-book (Entire Book)

Chicago Manual 14.166 and 14.17


Bibliography:


Footnote:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Title of Book.

Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of

Publication. Format of e-book.

 

Russell, Martin. Beethoven's Hair: An Extraordinary

Historical Odyssey and a Scientific Mystery Solved.

New York: Broadway Books, 2001. ebrary

collections e-book.

 

First Note:

5. Martin Russell, Beethoven's Hair:

 An Extraordinary Historical Odyssey and a Scientific Mystery Solved (New York: Broadway Books, 2001), ebrary collections e-book, 33.

 Shortened Note:

6. Russell, Beethoven's Hair, 33.

 

Note: When citing an e-book that does not have fixed page numbers, use a chapter number, section heading or another reference marker in the note.

Top


Journal Article

Choose the source type from the list:

Note: For the treatment of author variations, such as multiple authors, corporate authors, or no author listed, please see Book citation as a model for this element of the citation.

More footnote information


Journal Article from Library Database

Chicago Manual 14.271


Bibliography:


Footnote:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. "Title of Article." Title

of Journal volume number, no. issue number (Year of

Publication): page numbers. Name of Database

(accession number).

Chavez, Linda. "The Realities of Immigration." Commentary

122, no. 1 (2006): 34-41. Academic OneFile

(A147668438).

Or:

Kenseth, Joy. "Bernini's Borghese Sculptures: Another View."

The Art Bulletin 63, no. 2 (1981): 191-210.

http://www.jstor.org/stable/3050112.

Note: If a database uses a stable URL for an article, use the URL instead of the database name and accession number.

First Note:

4. Linda Chavez, "The Realities

of Immigration," Commentary 122, no. 1 (2006): 39. Academic OneFile (A147668438).

 

Shortened Note:

5. Chavez, "The Realities of

Immigration," 39.

Top


Article from an Online Journal

Chicago Manual 14.4-14.8 and 14.18


Bibliography:


Footnote:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Journal

volume number, no. issue number (Year of Publication):

page numbers. doi:xxxxxxxxxxxx.

Humphrey, Laura L. "Structural Analysis of Parent-Child Relationships in

Eating Disorders." Journal of Abnormal Psychology 95 (November

1986): 395-402. doi:10.1037/0021-

843X.95.4.395.

Or:

Salama, Ashraf M. "A Theory for Integrating Knowledge in Architectural

 Design Education." Archnet-IJAR: International Journal

of Architectural Research 2 no. 1 (2008): 100-28. http://archnet.org/

publications/5097

Note: If a journal uses continuous pagination throughout its volume, the issue number may be omitted.

If a DOI is not available, use a URL.

First Note:

4. Laura L. Humphrey,

"Structural Analysis of Parent-Child Relationships in Eating Disorders," Journal of Abnormal Psychology 95 (November 1986): 396, doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.

 

 
 Shortened Note:

5. Humphrey,

"Structural Analysis," 396.

Top


Print Journal Article

Chicago Manual 14.175-14.183

 


Bibliography:


Footnote:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. "Title of Article." Title of

Journal volume number, no. issue number (Year of

Publication): page numbers. doi:xxxxxxxxxxxx.

Greenberg, Anna. "Race, Religiosity, and the Women's Vote."

Women & Politics 22, no. 3 (2001): 59-82.

Note: If a journal uses continuous pagination throughout its volume, the issue number may be omitted.

First Note:

4. Anna Greenberg, "Race,

 Religiosity, and the Women's Vote," Women & Politics 22, no. 3(2001): 61.

 

Shortened Note:

5. Greenberg, "Race, Religiosity,

 and the Women's Vote,” 61.

 

Top

Review

Chicago Manual 14.215

Bibliography:

Footnote:

Author of Review's Last Name, Author of Review's First Name. "Title of article." Review of 

Title of book being reviewed,  by Author's First and Last Name. Journal

Title volume (Date of issue):page numbers.


Sorby, Angela. Review of Songs of Ourselves: The Uses of Poetry in America, by Joan Shelley

Ruben. American Historical Review 113 (April 2008): 449-51. doi:xxxxxxxxxxxx.

Note: 

 

1. Angela Sorby,
review of Songs of Ourselves: The Uses of Poetry in America, by Joan Shelley Rubin, American Historical Review 113 (April 2008): 450.

 Top


Magazine Article

Choose the source type from the list:

More footnote information


Magazine Article from Library Database

Chicago Manual 14.271 and 14.206


Bibliography:


Footnote:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. "Title of Article." Title of

 Magazine, Month Day, Year of Publication. Name of database,

 (accession number) or stable URL (if available).

 

Brown, Rob. "The Last Boom Industry." New Statesman, March 26,

 2012. Academic OneFile. (GALE|A286256641).

 

Note: Usually magazine articles are only cited within the text of the paper. A corresponding reference list entry is not needed, as long as the item has been documented in the text. Above is a more formal example of the citation.

Only provide a URL if it is a permanent or stable link. Most databases will specify this.

First Note:

7. Rob Brown, "The Last

 Boom Industry," New Statesman, March 26, 2012, accessed June 10, 2012, Academic OneFile, (GALE|A286256641).

 

 

Shortened Note:

8. Brown, "The Last Boom

 Industry."

Top


Magazine Article from Online Website

Chicago Manual 14.200 and 14.206


Bibliography:


Footnote:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. "Title of Article." Title of

Magazine, Month Day, Year of Publication. URL.

Malcolm, Janet. "Depth of Field." New Yorker, September 26, 2011.

http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2011/09/26/

110926fa_fact_malcolm.

Note: Usually magazine article are only cited within the text of the paper. A corresponding bibliography entry is not needed, as long as the item has been documented in the text. Above is a more formal example of the citation.

First Note:

2. Janet Malcolm, "Depth

of Field," New Yorker, September 26, 2011, accessed June 6, 2012. http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2011/09/26/110926fa_fact_malcolm.

 

Shortened Note:

3. Malcolm, "Depth of Field."

 

Top


Print Magazine Article

Chicago Manual 14.199


Bibliography:


Footnote:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. "Title of Article." Title of

Magazine, Month, Day, Year of Publication.

Fineman, Howard. "The Political Winds of War." Newsweek,

May 7, 2007.

First Note:

10. Howard Fineman, "The

Political Winds of War," Newsweek, May 7, 2007, 45.

 

Shortened Note:

11. Fineman, "The Political

Winds of War," 45.

Top


Newspaper Article

Choose the source type from the list:

More footnote information


Newspaper Article From a Library Database

Chicago Manual 14.271


Bibliography:


Footnote:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. "Title of Article." Title of

Newspaper, Month Day, Year of Publication. Name of Database

(accession number) or stable URL (if available).

 

Harmon, Amy. "DNA Gatherers Hit a Snag: The Tribes Don't Trust

Them." New York Times December 10, 2006. ProQuest

Newspapers (433461714).

Notes: Usually newspaper articles are only cited within the text of the paper. A corresponding bibliography entry is not needed, as long as the item has been documented in the text. Above is a more formal example of the citation.

Only provide a URL if it is a permanent or stable link. Most databases will specify this.

First Note:

6. Amy Harmon, "DNA

Gatherers Hit a Snag: The Tribes Don't Trust Them," New York Times, December 10, 2006, ProQuest Newspapers (433461714).

 

Shortened Note:

7. Harmon, "DNA Gatherers."

 

Top


Article From Newspaper Website

The Chicago Manual does not provide specific guidance on how to cite articles from Newspaper websites, but the library suggests that you use the citation below based on guidelines for similar citations.


Bibliography:


Footnote:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. "Title of Article." Title of

Newspaper, Month Day, Year of Publication. Accessed

 Date Month Day, Year. URL.

Harmon, Amy. "DNA Gatherers Hit a Snag: The Tribes Don't Trust

Them." New York Times, December 10, 2006. Accessed

 January 5, 2007. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/10/

us/10dna.html.

Note: Usually newspaper articles are only cited within the text of the paper. A corresponding bibliography entry is not needed, as long as the item has been documented in the text. Above is a more formal example of the citation.

First Note:

6. Amy Harmon, "DNA

Gatherers Hit a Snag: The Tribes Don't Trust Them," New York Times, December 10, 2006, accessed June 10, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/10/us/10dna.html.

 

Shortened Note:

7. Harmon, "DNA Gatherers."

 

Top


Print Newspaper Article

Chicago Manual 14.203-14.206


Bibliography:


Footnote:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. "Title of Article." Title

of Newspaper, Month, Day, and Year of Publication,

 Section, Edition.

Vogel, Carol. "Art in the Present Tense: Politics, Loss and

Beauty." New York Times, June 11, 2007, Arts section,

 East Coast edition.

Note: Usually newspaper articles are only cited in a note. A corresponding bibliography entry is not needed, as long as the item has been documented in the notes. Above is a more formal example of the citation.

First Note:

11. Carol Vogel, "Art in the Present

 Tense: Politics, Loss and Beauty," New York Times, June 11, 2007, Arts section, East Coast edition.

 

Shortened Note:

12. Vogel, "Art in the Present

Tense."

Top


Newspaper Article with an Unknown Author

Chicago Manual 14.206-14.207


Bibliography:


Footnote:

Title of Newspaper. "Title of Article." Month Day, Year of

Publication.

Hartford Courant. "Number of Out-of-Wedlock Births a Record."

November 26, 2006.

Note: Usually newspaper articles are only cited in a note. A corresponding bibliography entry is not needed, as long as the item has been documented in the notes. Above is a more formal example of the citation.

First Note:

7. "Number of Out-of-Wedlock Births

 a Record, "Hartford Courant, November 26, 2006.

 

Shortened Note:

8. "Number of Out-of-Wedlock,"

Hartford Courant.

Top


Letter to the Editor

Chicago Manual 14.208

 


Bibliography:


Footnote:

Author's Last Name, Author's First name. Letter to the editor,

Title of Newspaper, Month, Day and Year of Publication.

Arsham, Jane. Letter to the editor, Boston Globe, November 9, 2006.

Note: Published letters to the editor are treated generically, without headlines.

First Note:

4. Jane Ashram, letter to the

editor, Boston Globe, November 9, 2006.

Shortened Note:

5. Ashram, letter to the editor.

 

Top


Website or Blog

Choose the source type from the list:

More footnote information


Website

Chicago Manual 14.243-14.245


Bibliography:


Footnote:

Author of the Site. "Title of Web Page." Owner/Sponsor of Site.

Published, Modified, or Accessed Month, day and year.

 URL.

Watson, Ivan. "Tunisians Vote in First Election Following Arab Spring."

 CNN.com. Last modified October 23, 2011.

http://us.cnn.com/2011/10/23 /world /africa/tunisia-elections

/index.html.

Note: The Chicago Manual of Style suggests citing web pages only in the notes. If your paper does not contain notes, cite the web page in the bibliography.

If there is not a publication date or last modified date, use the date when you accessed the web page.

First Note:

13. Ivan Watson, "Tunisians

 Vote in First Election Following Arab Spring," CNN.com, last modified October 23, 2011, http://us.cnn.com/2011/10/23/world/africa/tunisia-elections/index.html.

 

Shortened Note:

14. Watson, "Tunisians Vote."

 

Top


Website, no author

Chicago Manual 15.3 and 14.243-14.245


Bibliography:


Footnote:

"Title of webpage." Title of Website. Published, Modified, or

Accessed Date Month Day, Year. URL.

"Victorian Smoking Rates Hit Record Low." 9 News. Accessed

July 17, 2012. http://news.ninemsn.com.au/health

/8501042/victorian-smoking-rates-hit-record-low.

Notes: Usually websites are only cited within the text of the paper. A corresponding bibliography entry is not needed, as long as the item has been documented in the text. Above is a more formal example of the citation.

If the publication date or the date of the web page's last modification is not available, use the date when you accessed the web page.

First Note:

6. "Victorian Smoking Rates

Hit Record Low," 9 News, accessed July 17, 2012, http://www.ninemsn.com.au/health/8501042/victorian-smoking-rates-hit-record-low.

 

Shortened Note:

7. "Victorian Smoking Rates."

Top


Blog Posting

Chicago Manual 14.243-14.244 and 14.246


Bibliography:


Footnote:

Running Text Example:

In her blog posting dated November 15, 2009, on AHA Today, Jessica Pritchard gives a favorable review of the Inuit Heritage Trust's web resources for teachers.

Below is a more formal example of the citation:

Title of Blog (blog (if not part of the title)). URL.

AHA Today (blog). http://blog.historians.org/education/919/

inuit-contact-an-arctic-culture-teaching-resource.

 

Note: You may cite blog entries and comments within the text of your paper instead of using a note. Also you may omit the blog citation from your bibliography.

First Note:

9. Jessica Pritchard, "Inuit Contact:

 An Arctic Culture Teaching Resource," AHA Today (blog), November 15, 2009, http://blog.historians.org/education/919/inuit-contact-an-arctic-cutlture-teaching-resource.

 

Shortened Note:

10. Pritchard, "Inuit Contact.”

Top


Twitter Posting

From Chicago Manual of Style Online Q&A


Bibliography:


Footnote:

In the text, incorporate post into a sentence: In a Twitter post on September 14, 2011, Garrett Kiely (@gkiely) wrote "Using Google, Authors Guild takes 2 mins to connect an author with an 'orphaned work.' bit.ly/nqyjOo."

Note: The Chicago Manual of Style suggests citing web pages (such as Twitter) only in notes, not in the bibliography.

 

 

First Note:

9. Garrett Kiely, Twitter post,

September 14, 2011, 8:50 a.m. http://twitter.com/gkiely.

 

 Shortened Note:

10. Kiely, Twitter post.

Top


E-mail, List-serv or Personal Communication

Choose the source type from the list:

More footnote information


E-mail

Chicago Manual 14.222


Bibliography:


Footnote:

Running Text Example:

In her e-mail to the author on December 6, 2006, Barbara Smith described...

Note: You may cite e-mail messages within the text of your paper instead of using a note. Usually e-mails are not listed in the bibliography.

First Note:

6. Barbara Smith, e-mail

message to author, December 6, 2006.

Shortened Note:

7. Barbara Smith, e-mail

message to author, December 6, 2006.

Top


Electronic Mailing List (List-serv)

Chicago Manual 14.223


Bibliography:


Footnote:

Message Author's Last Name, Message Author's First Name. E-mail to

 Name of Mailing List. Date of Posting. URL of archived message

(if applicable).

Abungu, Lorna. E-mail to ICME Electronic Mailing List. April 13, 2007.

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/icme/message/155.

Note: Electronic mailing list messages are only included in a bibliography if they are accessible via a stable URL.

 

First Note:

7. Lorna Abungu

to ICME Electronic Mailing List, April 13, 2007, http://groups.yahoo.com/group icme/message/155.

 Shortened Note:

8. Lorna Abungu

to ICME Electronic Mailing List, April 16, 2007.

 

Top


Personal Communication

Chicago Manual 14.222


Bibliography:


Footnote:

Running Text Example:

In a telephone conversation between Sarah Jones and the author on June 22, 2006...

Notes: Personal communications such as face to face conversation, telephone conversation, text messages, etc. are not typically included in the bibliography.

They may be cited in the running text of your paper instead of using a footnote.

First Note:

4. Sarah Jones, e-mail

message to author, June 22, 2006.

Shortened Note:

5. Sarah Jones, telephone

conversation, June 22, 2006.

Top


Audio/Video

Choose the source type from the list:

More footnote information


Online Video

Chicago Manual 14.280


Bibliography:


Footnote:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Title of Film. Name

of Publisher, Date of Work, Format of Film. From Source,

Collection Name. Medium, Duration of film. URL.

 

Edison, Thomas A. Sleighing Scene. Thomas A. Edison,

Inc., 1898, 35mm film. From Library of Congress,

America at Work, America at Leisure: Motion Pictures

from 1894-1915. RealMedia, MPEG, Quick Time

 video, 47 sec. http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.mbrsmi/

lcmp002.m2a38968

First Note:

6. Thomas A. Edison, Sleighing

Scene (Thomas A. Edison, Inc., 1898), 35 mm film, from Library of Congress, America at Work, America at Leisure: Motion Pictures from 1894-1915, RealMedia, MPEG, Quick Time video, 47 sec., http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.mbrsmi/lcmp002. m2a38968.

 

 Shortened Note:

7. Sleighing Scene.

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Motion Picture

Chicago Manual 14.729


Bibliography:


Footnote:

Title of Movie. Directed by Name of Director. Original Release

Date (if applicable). Location of Distributor: Name of

 Distributor, Release Date, Medium.

 

Rear Window. Directed by Alfred Hitchcock. 1954. Universal

City, CA: Universal Pictures, 2001, DVD.

First Note:

33. Rear Window, directed by

Alfred Hitchcock (1954; Universal City, CA: Universal Pictures, 2001), DVD.

 

Shortened Note:

34. Rear Window.

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Sound Recording

Chicago Manual 14.276


Bibliography:


Footnote:

Name of Composer, Conductor, or Performer (depends on who

 you emphasize in your paper). Title of Recording.

 Name of Composer, Conductor, and/or Performer

(if they are not listed at the beginning of the

bibliography entry). Name of Recording Company

Music Number, Copyright Date, medium. Recording

Date or Published Date.

 

Dylan, Bob. All Along the Watchtower. Jimi Hendrix. MCA

MCAD-10895, 1993, compact disc. Previously

released in 1968.

First Note:

     13. Dylan, All Along the Watch-
tower
,
MCA MCAD-10895, 1993, compact disc. Previously released in 1968.




Shortened Note:

     14. Dylan, All Along the Watchtower.

 

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Television Episode

Note: The Chicago manual does not provide specific guidance on how to cite Television Episodes, but the library suggests that you cite as described below based on guidelines for similar citations.


Bibliography:


Footnote:

Title of Program. "Title of Episode." Episode number

(if applicable). Directed by Name of Director. Written by

Name of Writer. Narrated by Name/s of Narrator/s (if

applicable). Performed by Name of Performer/s (if

applicable). Name of Network, Original Air Date.

Journey to Planet Earth. "Land of Plenty, Land of Want."

Directed by Hal Weiner. Written by Hal Weiner.

Narrated by Kelly McGillis. PBS, 1999.

First Note:

8. Journey to Planet

Earth, "Land of Plenty, Land of Want,"

1999.

Or:

8. Journey to Planet

Earth, "Land of Plenty, Land of Want,"

directed by Hal Weiner, written by Hal

Weiner, narrated by Kelly McGillis,

PBS, 1999.

Shortened Note:

9. Journey to Planet

Earth, "Land of Plenty."

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Television Series

Note: The Chicago manual does not provide specific guidance on how to cite Television Series, but the library suggests that you cite as described below based on guidelines for similar citations.


Bibliography:


Footnote:

Title of Program. Directed by Name of Director. Written by

Name of Writer. Narrated by Name/s of

Narrator/s. Performed by Name/s of

Performer/s. Name of Network,

Original Air Date.

Journey to Planet Earth. Directed by Hal Weiner. Written by Hal

Weiner. Narrated by Kelly McGillis. PBS, 1999.

First Note:

8. Journey to Planet Earth,

PBS, 1999.

Shortened Note:

9. Journey to Planet Earth.

 

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Image or Advertisement

Choose the source type from the list:

More footnote information


Online Images

Chicago Manual 14.280 and 8.193


Bibliography:


Footnote:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Title of Work. Format

of Work. Place of Publication: Name of

Publisher, Date of Work. From Source,

Collection Name. Medium. URL.

Lange, Dorothea. Destitute Pea Pickers in California. Mother of

Seven Children. Age Thirty-Two. Nipomo,

California. Photograph. 1936. From Library of

Congress, America from the Great Depression

to World War II: Black-and-White Photographs

from the FSA-OWI, 1935-1945. JPEG and

TIFF files. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/

resource/fsa.8b29516/.

Or:

Arnold, E. G. Topographical Map of the Original District

of Columbia and Environs Showing the

Fortifications around the City of Washington.

Map. New York: G. Woolworth Colton, 1862.

From Library of Congress, Civil War Maps,

1861-1865. JPEG2000 file.

http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/

fsa.8b29516/.

Note: Titles of paintings, drawings, sculptures, and photographs are italicized. Titles of antiquities are set in roman.

First Note:

5. E. G. Arnold, Topographical

Map of the Original District of Columbia and

Environs Showing the Fortifications around the

City of Washington (New York: G. Woolworth

Colton, 1862), from Library of Congress,

Civil War Maps, 1861-1865, JPEG2000 file,

http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/

fsa.8b29516/

Shortened Note:

6. Arnold, Topographical Map.

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Work of Art

Note: The Chicago manual does not provide specific guidance on how to cite Works of Art, but the library suggests that you cite as described below based on guidelines for similar citations.


Bibliography:


Footnote:

Artist's Last Name, Artist's First Name. Date. Title of Work.

Museum Name, Museum Location.

Hopper, Edward. 1929. Railroad Sunset. Whitney Museum of

American Art, New York.

Note: Works of art are not typically included in the bibliography, just the notes. Above is a more formal example of the citation.

First Note:

14. Edward Hopper, Railroad

Sunset, 1929, Whitney Museum of Art, New

York.

Note: If the exact date is not available, use an approximate date preceded by ca. (short for circa) before it.

Shortened Note:

15. Hopper, Railroad Sunset.

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Advertisement

Note: The Chicago manual does not provide specific guidance on how to cite Advertisements, but the library suggests that you cite as described below based on guidelines for similar citations.


Bibliography:


Footnote:

Product, Company, or Institution Name. Date of Publication.

"Title of Advertisement" (if applicable)

advertisement. Name of Publication, page

number (for print) or URL (for electronic).

Banana Republic. October 2006. Advertisement. InStyle, 51.

Note: Advertisements are not typically included in the bibliography, just in the notes. Above is a more formal example of the citation.

First Note:

22. Banana Republic,

Advertisement, October 2006, InStyle.

Shortened Note:

23. Banana Republic

Advertisement.

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Secondary Sources

Chicago Manual 14.273

A secondary source is a source that quotes or paraphrases another source. An example would be Sontag's On Photography cited in Zelizer's book Remembering to Forget. Use the format below only if you are unable to examine the original source material (e.g. Sontag's On Photography). The Chicago Manual of Style discourages the use of secondary sources.


Bibliography:


Footnote:

Sontag, Susan. On Photography. New York: Anchor Books,

1977. Quoted in Barbie Zelizer. Remembering

to Forget: Holocaust Memory through the

Camera's Eye. Chicago: University of Chicago

Press, 2003.

Note: Give the citation for the original material (use the appropriate citation format for your source, e.g. book or article) followed by the words "Quoted in." Then give the citation information for your secondary source.

First Note:

6. Susan Sontag, On

Photography (New York: Anchor Books,

1977), quoted in Barbie Zelizer,

Remembering to Forget: Holocaust

Memory through the Camera's Eye.

(Chicago: University of Chicago

Press, 2003), 11.

Shortened Note:

7. Sontag, On Photography in

Zelizer, 2003.

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Footnote Information with Examples

Numbering Footnotes and Positioning Footnote Numbers

Chicago Manual 14.19-14.21

Footnotes are numbered consecutively beginning with 1. In the text of your paper, note numbers are superscript. In the footnotes, note numbers are regular size and not raised.

Special Note:

  • Bibliography: Invert the author's name (Author's Last Name, Author's First Name),
  • Note: Don't invert the author's name (Author's First Name Author's Last Name).

Example:

"No single memory reflects all that is known about a given event, personality, or issue." 1

Put the note number at the end of a sentence or clause and after any punctuation, except for the dash.

1. Barbie Zelizer, Remembering to Forget: Holocaust Memory through the Camera's Eye (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003), 3.

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Shortened Notes

Chicago Manual 14.24-14.28

Use a full footnote the first time a source is noted, and use a shortened note for subsequent times that the same source is noted.

Full Footnote Example:

1. Barbie Zelizer, Remembering to Forget: Holocaust Memory through the Camera's Eye (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003), 3.

Shortened Footnote Format:

Author's Last Name, Title (shorten if more than 4 words), page number.

5. Zelizer, Remembering to Forget, 11.

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Several Sources Cited in One Note

Chicago Manual 14.23, 14.52

Separate each citation with a semicolon and keep the sources in the same order as they are mentioned in the text.

Example:

Some of the scholars that have addressed this issue are Barbie Zelizer, Martin Russell, and Karen Benedict.3

3. Barbie Zelizer, Remembering to Forget: Holocaust Memory through the Camera's Eye (Chicago: University of

Chicago Press, 2003), 11; Martin Russell, Beethoven's Hair: An Extraordinary Historical Odyssey and a Scientific Mystery

Solved (New York: Broadway Books, 2001), ebrary collections e-book; Karen Benedict, "Archival Ethics," in Managing Archives

and Archival Institutions, ed. James Gregory Bradsher (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998), 176.

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Using Ibid.

Chicago Manual 14.29

Use Ibid. if the preceding note contains the same information as your following note. If the page numbers being cited are different, then give the new page numbers. If the pages are the same, use only Ibid. Do not use Ibid. if the preceding note contains several citations.

Examples:

1. Barbie Zelizer, Remembering to Forget: Holocaust Memory through the Camera's Eye (Chicago: University of

Chicago Press, 2003), 3.

2. Ibid., 11.

3. Karen Benedict, "Archival Ethics," in Managing Archives and Archival Institutions, ed. James Gregory

Bradsher (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998), 176.

4. Ibid.

5. Ibid., 178.

6. Douglas W. Mock and Geoffrey A. Parker, The Evolution of Sibling Rivalry (Oxford: Oxford University Press,

1997), 72; Danuta Bukato and Marvin A. Daehler, Child Development: A Thematic Approach, 5th ed. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin,

2004), 78.

7. Mock and Parker, Evolution of Sibling Rivalry, 75.

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Citations plus Commentary

Chicago Manual 14.32

In the footnote, cite your source first, and then add your commentary.

Example:

11. Carol Vogel, "Art in the Present Tense: Politics, Loss and Beauty," New York Times, June 11, 2007, Arts

section, East Coast edition. Several African countries were represented in the 52nd Venice Biennale for the first time.

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Bible

Chicago 14.252-255


Bibliography:


Footnote:

Title and version. Place of Publication: Publisher, Date of Publication Year.

The Bible: Authorized King James version. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Notes: Books of the Bible can be abbreviated, for example, Lev., Num.

Including a Bibliography entry for the Bible is not required, but may be used to reference a particular version.

First Note:

64. John 3:2-5

(King James Version).

Shortened Note:

65. John 3:2-5.

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Other Resources

For more examples and information on how to format your paper

Online Resources

Print Resources

  • The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed. (Ref. Z253.U69 2010)

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