MLA Citations

MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7th ed., Ref. LB 2369.G53 2009

Commonly Cited Sources in MLA

Book | Ebook | Journal Article | Magazine Article | Newspaper Article | Website, Blog or Twitter Posting

E-mail, List-serv or Personal Communication | Audio/Video | Image or Advertisement | Indirect Sources

In-Text Citation Examples


Book

Choose a specific source type from the list:

More in-text citation information


Book with One Author

MLA Handbook 5.5.2

Works Cited Format:

In-text Citation:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Title of Book. Place of

Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication.

Medium.

Zelizer, Barbie. Remembering to Forget: Holocaust Memory through

the Camera's Eye. Chicago: University of Chicago P,

2003. Print.

(Zelizer 52)

Or:

Zelizer (52) states that...

 

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Book with Two Authors

MLA Handbook 5.5.4

 


Works Cited Format
:


In-text Citation:

First Author's Last Name, First Author's First Name, and Second

Author's First Name and Last Name. Title of Book.

Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of

Publication. Medium.

Mock, Douglas W., and Geoffrey A. Parker. The Evolution of Sibling

Rivalry. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Print.

(Mock and Parker 73)

Or:

Mock and Parker (73) subscribe to the theory that siblings ...

 

 

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Book with Three Authors

MLA Handbook 5.5.4


Works Cited Format
:


In-text Citation:

First Author's Last Name, First Author's First Name, Second Author's

First Name and Last Name, and Third Author's First

Name and Last Name. Title of Book. Place of

Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication.

Medium.

Garner, Judith F., Howard L. Smith, and Neill F. Piland. Strategic

Nursing Management: Power and Responsibility in a

New Era. Rockville, MD: Aspen, 1990. Print.

(Garner, Smith, and Piland 142)

Or:

As Garner, Smith, and Piland (142) assert about managing health care units...

 

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Book with More than Three Authors

MLA Handbook 5.5.4


Works Cited Format
:


In-text Citation:

First Author's Last Name, First Author's First Name, et al. Title of Book.

Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of

Publication. Medium.

Or:

First Author's Last Name, First Author's First Name,

Second Author's First Name and Last

Name, Third Author's First Name and

Last Name, Fourth Author's First Name

and Last Name, Fifth Author's First Name

and Last Name, and Sixth Author's First

Name and Last Name. Title of Book.

Place of Publication: Name of Publisher,

Year of Publication. Medium.

Note: List all of the authors on the title page.


Dasco, Sheryl Tatar, et al. Managed Care Answer Book. New York:

Panel, 1995. Print.

Or:

Dasco, Sheryl Tatar, Clifford C. Dasco, Connie U. Brelhan,

Kirk C. Harlow, Margaret S. Jaffee-Neer, Marilyn

Rumsey, and Ellison H. Wittels. Managed Care

Answer Book. New York: Panel, 1995. Print.

Note: For a work with more than three authors, you may give the first author followed by et al., or you may list all the authors in the order they are given on the title page.

(Dasco et al. 122)

Or:

(Dasco, Dasco, Brelhan, Harlow, Jaffee-Neer, Rumsey, and Wittels 122)

 

Note: For a parenthetical reference, follow the bibliographic form you used: give the first author's last name followed by et al. or list all of the authors.

 

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Organization as Author

MLA Handbook 5.5.5


Works Cited Format
:


In-text Citation:

Organization's Name. Title of Book. Place of

Publication: Name of Publisher, Year

of Publication. Medium.

American Psychiatric Association. Practice Guideline

for the Treatment of Patients with Panic

Disorder. Washington, DC: American

Psychiatric Association, 1998. Print.

Notes:

  • An organization (a.k.a. corporate author) might be an association, or group of people acting as a single author - no individual names are listed.
  • Omit the initial article (a, an, the) from the organization's name.

(American Psychiatric Association 38)

Or:

The American Psychiatric Association stipulates that the patient must be diagnosed...(38).

 

Note: For better reading flow, the MLA Handbook suggests that the full name of the organization be written in the text, instead of being placed in the parenthesis.

 

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No Author

MLA Handbook 5.5.9


Works Cited Format:


In-text Citation:

Title. Edition ed. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher,

Publication Date. Medium. Version. (if applicable)

Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Thesaurus. 2nd ed. Springfield, MA:

Merriam-Webster, 2010. Print.

Note: If a book is anonymous and has no author's or editor's name, begin the entry with the title. Alphabetize the entry with the title, omitting any initial A, An, or The. (The Holy Bible is an exception and the full title should be included. It is alphabetized under h).

(Merriam-Webster's Thesaurus 206)

Or:

According to Merriam-Webster's Thesaurus...(206).

 

Note: The full title can be included if it is short, otherwise an abbreviated version is acceptable. When abbreviating, begin with the word by which it is alphabetized.

 

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Book Chapter

MLA Handbook 5.5.6


Works Cited Format
:


In-text Citation:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. "Title of Chapter." Title of

Book. Ed. Name of Editor(s). Place of Publication:

Name of Publisher, Year of Publication.

inclusive page numbers. Medium.

Benedict, Karen. "Archival Ethics." Managing Archives and Archival

Institutions. Ed. James Gregory Bradsher. Chicago:

U of Chicago P, 1998. 174-84. Print.

(Benedict 176)

 

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Anthology

MLA Handbook 5.5.3


Works Cited Format
:


In-text Citation:

Editor's Last Name, Editor's First Name, ed. Title of Book. Place of

Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication.

Medium.

Alberro, Alexander and Blake Stimson, eds. Conceptual Art: A Critical

Anthology. Cambridge: MIT P, 2000. Print.

(Alberro and Stimson 53)

 

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A Work in an Anthology

MLA Handbook 5.5.6


Works Cited Format:


In-text Citation:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. "Title of Work." Title of Book.

Ed. Name of Editor(s). Place of Publication: Name of

Publisher, Year of Publication. inclusive page numbers.

Medium.

Crow, Thomas. "Unwritten Histories of Conceptual Art." Conceptual Art:

A Critical Anthology. Ed. Alexander Alberro and Blake

Stimson. Cambridge: MIT P, 2000. 564-68. Print.

(Crow 565)

 

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Edition Other than First

MLA Handbook 5.5.13



Works Cited Format
:

 

In-text Citation:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Title of Book. edition number

or name ed. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher,

Year of Publication. Medium.

Bukatko, Danuta, and Marvin A. Daehler. Child Development: A

Thematic Approach. 5th ed. Boston: Houghton, 2004.

Print.

(Bukatko and Daehler 78)

 

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Translated Book

MLA Handbook 5.5.11



Works Cited Format
:


In-text Citation:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Title of Book. Trans. Name of

Translator(s). Place of Publication: Name of Publisher,

Date of Publication. Medium.

Freud, Sigmund. The Interpretation of Dreams. Trans. Joyce Crick.

New York: Oxford UP, 1999. Print.

(Freud 28)

 

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Multivolume Work (If Using Only One Volume)

MLA Handbook 5.5.14

 

Works Cited Format:


In-text Citation:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Title of Book. Vol. volume

number. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year

of Publication for Specific Volume. Medium.

Cook, Blanche Weisen. Eleanor Roosevelt. Vol. 1. New York: Viking,

1992. Print.

(Cook 52)

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Multivolume Work (If Using Two or More Volumes)

MLA Handbook 5.5.14

 

Works Cited Format:

In-text Citation:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Title of Book. number of

volumes vols. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher,

Year(s) of Publication. Medium.

Cook, Blanche Weisen. Eleanor Roosevelt. 2 vols. New York: Viking,

1992-1999. Print.

(Cook 1: 52)

Or:

Cook talks about Roosevelt's early life incident (1: 52).

Note: In the parenthetical reference, cite the volume number and the page number. Use a colon and a space before the page number.

 

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Encyclopedia Entry

MLA Handbook 5.5.7


Works Cited Format
:


In-text Citation:

Author of Article. "Title of Article." Title of Encyclopedia. Ed. Editor of

Encyclopedia. edition number ed. Vol. volume number.

Place of Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of

Publication. Medium.

Dowrick, Peter W. "Behavioral Medicine." The Corsini Encyclopedia of

Psychology and Behavioral Science. Ed. W. Edward

Craighead and Charles B. Nemeroff. 3rd ed. Vol. 1.

New York: Wiley, 2001. Print.

(Dowrick 188)

 

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A Foreword, Preface, Introduction or Afterword

MLA Handbook 5.5.8


Works Cited Format
:


In-text Citation:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. "Title of Foreword, Preface,

Introduction or Afterword." Foreword [or Preface,

Introduction or Afterword]. Title of Book.

Ed. Editor's Names. Place of Publication:

Name of Publisher, Year of Publication. inclusive page

numbers. Medium.

Alberro, Alexander. "Reconsidering Conceptual Art, 1966-1977."

Preface. Conceptual Art: A Critical Anthology. Ed.

Alexander Alberro and Blake Stimson. Cambridge: MIT

P, 2000. xvi-xxxvii. Print.

Note: If the foreword, preface, introduction or afterword is untitled, proceed with the name of the part being cited (e.g. Foreword, Preface, Introduction or Afterword) after the author's name.

Hobbs, Robert. Introduction. Lee Krasner. By Hobbs. New York:

Abbeville, 1993. 7-11. Print.

Note: If the author of the foreword, preface, introduction or afterword is also the author of the book, give only the author's surname after By.

(Alberro xvii)

 

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A Reprinted Scholarly Work in a Collection

MLA Handbook 5.5.6


Works Cited Format
:


In-text Citation:

Simone, Irene. "Some Aspects of Virginia Woolf's Imagery." English

Studies 41:3 (1960): 180-96. Rpt. in Twentieth Century

Literary Criticism. Ed. Dennis Poupard. Vol. 20. Detroit:

Gale, 1992. 405-08. Print.

Note: Give the publication information in which the scholarly work was originally printed, then add Rpt in for "reprinted in," followed by the later publication information.

(Simon 405)

 

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Ebook

Choose a specific source type from the list:

Note: For the treatment of author variations, such as multiple authors, corporate authors, or no author listed, please see Book citation as a model for this element of the citation.

More in-text citation information


Ebook (Chapter)

MLA Handbook 5.6.2.c and 5.5.6


Works Cited Format
:


In-text Citation:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. "Title of Chapter." Title of

Book. Ed. Name of Editor(s). Place of Publication:

Name of Publisher, Year of Publication. Database

Name. Web. Day Month Year Accessed.

Dray, Andy. "Vanilloids as Analgesics." Novel Aspects of Pain

Management: Opioids and Beyond. Ed. Jana Sawynok

and Alan Cowan. New York: Wiley-Liss, 1999.

NetLibrary. Web. 26 Oct. 2008.

Note: If the ebook is read from an Internet website, substitute the title of the website (italicized) for Database Name.

(Dray 119)

 

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Ebook (Entire Book)

MLA Handbook 5.6.2.c and 5.5


Works Cited Format
:


In-text Citation:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Title of Book. Place of

Publication: Name of Publisher, Year of Publication.

Database Name. Web. Day Month Year Accessed.

Martin, Russell. Beethoven's Hair: An Extraordinary Historical Odyssey

and a Scientific Mystery Solved. New York: Broadway

Books, 2001. ebrary collections. Web. 26 Oct. 2008.

Note: If the ebook is read from an Internet website, substitute the title of the website (italicized) for Database Name.

(Martin 34)

 

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Journal Article

Choose a specific source type from the list:

Note: For the treatment of author variations, such as multiple authors, corporate authors, or no author listed, please see Book citation as a model for this element of the citation.

More in-text citation information


Journal Article from Library Database

MLA Handbook 5.6.4


Works Cited Format
:


In-text Citation:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. "Title of Article." Title of

Journal volume number.issue number (Year of

Publication): page numbers. Database Name. Web.

Day Month Year Accessed.

Chavez, Linda. "The Realities of Immigration." Commentary 122.1

(2006): 34-41. Expanded Academic ASAP. Web.

25 Sept. 2006.

(Chavez 35)

 

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Online Journal Article

MLA Handbook 5.6.3 and 5.4.2

 

Works Cited Format:


In-text Citation:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. "Title of Article." Title of

Journal volume number.issue number (Year of

Publication): inclusive page numbers. Web. Day Month

Year of Access.

Henry, Phil. "The Sociological Implications for Contemporary

Buddhism in the United Kingdom: Socially Engaged

Buddhism, A Case Study." Journal of Buddhist Ethics

13(2006): n. pag. Web. 13 December 2006.

Note: If an online journal does not use page numbers, use n. pag. instead.

Henry uses triangulation to study the United Kingdom's Buddhist population.

 

Note: If an electronic publication does not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or another type of reference marker, cite the entire work. It is best to include the author's name in the text of your document rather than using a parenthetical reference.

 

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Print Journal Article

MLA Handbook 5.4.1 and 5.4.2


Works Cited Format
:


In-text Citation:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. "Title of Article." Title of

Journal volume number.issue number (Year of

Publication): inclusive page numbers. Medium.

Greenberg, Anna. "Race, Religiosity, and the Women's Vote." Women

& Politics 22.3 (2001): 59-82. Print.

(Greenberg 73)

 

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Review

MLA Handbook 5.4.7


Works Cited Format
:


In-text Citation:

Author of Review. "Title of Review [if there is one]." Rev. of Title of Work

Being Reviewed, by Author's Name. Title of Journal

volume number.issue number (Year of Publication):

page numbers. Medium.

Ellis, Nadia. Rev. of Postcolonial London: Rewriting the Metropolis,

by John McLeod. Postcolonial Studies 9 (2006):

337-42. Print.

(Ellis 338)

 

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Magazine Article

Choose a specific source type from the list:

More in-text citation information


Magazine Article from Library Database

MLA Handbook 5.6.4


Works Cited Format
:


In-text Citation:

Author Last Name, Author First Name. "Title of Article." Title of

Magazine Date of Publication: inclusive page numbers.

Title of Database. Medium. Day Month

Year Accessed.

Brown, Rob. "The Last Boom Industry." New Statesman

26 March 2012: 15. Academic OneFile.

Web. 6 June 2012.

Note: If page numbers not given, use n. pag. When page numbers are not continuous, use first page number and a plus sign.

(Brown 15)

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Magazine Article from Online Website

Note: MLA does not provide specific guidance on how to cite Magazine Articles from Online Websites, but the library suggests that you use the citation below based on guidelines for similar citations.


Works Cited Format
:


In-text Citation:

Author Last Name, Author First Name. "Title of Article." Title of

Magazine Date of Publication: inclusive page numbers.

Medium. Date of access (day month year).

Malcolm, Janet. "Depth of Field." New Yorker 26 September 2011: n.

pag. Web. 6 June 2012.

Note: If page numbers not given, use n. pag. When page numbers are not continuous, use first page number and a plus sign.

Malcolm discusses a painting of the Queen...

Note: If an electronic publication does not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or another type of reference marker, cite the entire work. It is best to include the author's name in the text of your document rather than using a parenthetical reference.

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Print Magazine Article

MLA Handbook 5.4.6


Works Cited Format
:


In-text Citation:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. "Title of Article." Title

of Magazine Date of Publication: inclusive page

numbers. Medium.

Ravilious, Kate. "Scots on the Rocks: Mountaineering Archaeologists

Reach New Heights of Discovery." Archaeology Nov.-

Dec. 2006: 16-21. Print.

Note: For articles not printed on consecutive pages, give the first page number followed by a plus sign. For magazines published weekly or biweekly, give the complete date of publication (day month year).

(Ravilious 17)

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Newspaper Article

Choose a specific source type from the list:

More in-text citation information


Newspaper Article from Library Database

MLA Handbook 5.6.4


Works Cited Format
:


In-text Citation:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. "Title of Article." Title of

Newspaper Day Month Year of Publication, edition ed.:

page number(s). Database Name. Medium. Day Month

Year Accessed.

Harmon, Amy. "DNA Gatherers Hit a Snag: The Tribes Don't Trust

Them." New York Times 10 Dec. 2006, East Coast late

ed.: 1.1. ProQuest Newspapers. Web. 5 Jan. 2007.

Harmon reports that many indigenous groups are wary of the National Geographic Society's DNA project.

Notes: If an electronic publication does not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or another type of reference marker, cite the entire work. It is best to include the author's name in the text of your document rather than using a parenthetical reference.

Also, a page number is unnecessary if an article is only one page long. Again, include the author's name in the text of your document rather than using a parenthetical reference.

 

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Article from Newspaper Website

MLA Handbook 5.6.4


Works Cited Format
:


In-text Citation:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. "Title of Article." Title of

Newspaper Day Month Year of Publication, edition ed.:

page number(s). Medium. Day Month Year Accessed.

Harmon, Amy. "DNA Gatherers Hit a Snag: The Tribes Don't Trust

Them." New York Times 10 Dec. 2006, East Coast late

ed.: 1.1. Web. 5 Jan. 2007.

Note: If page numbers not given, use n. pag. When page numbers are not continuous, use first page number and a plus sign.

Harmon reports that many indigenous groups are wary of the National Geographic Society's DNA project.

Notes: If an electronic publication does not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or another type of reference marker, cite the entire work. It is best to include the author's name in the text of your document rather than using a parenthetical reference.

Also, a page number is unnecessary if an article is only one page long. Again, include the author's name in the text of your document rather than using a parenthetical reference.

 

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Print Newspaper Article

MLA Handbook 5.4.5


Works Cited Format
:


In-text Citation:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. "Title of Article." Title of

Newspaper Day Month Year of Publication, edition ed.:

page number(s). Medium.

Donelly, John. "SARS Authority Picked to Lead Health Group." Boston

Globe 9 Nov. 2006, first ed.: A14. Print.

Notes:

  • Omit the introductory article (a, an, the) from the title of an English-language newspaper; however, keep the introductory article for titles of foreign newspapers (e.g. Le Figaro). If a newspaper title does not include the city name in its title, then add it in brackets (e.g. Daily News [New York]). A city name is not needed for a nationally published paper (e.g. USA Today).
  • For articles not printed on consecutive pages, give the first page number followed by a plus sign.

Donelly reports that Dr. Margaret Chan is expected to become the next director-general of the World Health Organization.

 

Note: The Reference List format example to the left is only one page long; therefore, the entire work is cited. When citing an entire work, it is preferable to include the author's name in the text of your document rather than in a parenthetical reference.

 

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Newspaper Article with Unknown Author

MLA Handbook 5.4.5 and 5.4.9


Works Cited Format
:


In-text Citation:

"Title of Article." Title of Newspaper Day Month Year of Publication,

edition ed.: page number(s). Medium.

"Number of Out-of-Wedlock Births a Record." Hartford Courant 26 Nov.

2006, New Haven County/Shoreline ed.: A7. Print.

Note: Within the works cited list, alphabetize works with no author by the first significant word in the title, omitting articles such as a, an and the.

According to the newspaper article "Number of Out-of-Wedlock Births a Record," the number of unwed mothers giving birth in their twenties has risen dramatically.

Note: For the parenthetical reference use a shortened version of the title in place of the author's name.

The Reference List Format example to the left is only one page long; therefore, the entire work is cited. When citing an entire work with an unknown author, it is preferable to include the title of the article in the text of your document, rather than in a parenthetical reference.

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Letter to Editor (Newspaper)

MLA Handbook 5.4.5 and 5.4.11


Works Cited Format
:


In-text Citation:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Letter. Title of Newspaper

Day Month Year of Publication, edition ed.: page

number(s). Medium.

Arsham, Jane. Letter. Boston Globe 9 Nov. 2006, first ed.: A.16. Print.

In her letter to the editor, Arsham stated that she felt as though her American citizenship had been usurped.

Note:The Reference List Format example to the left is only one page long; therefore, the entire work is cited. When citing an entire work, it is preferable to include the author's name in the text of your document rather than in a parenthetical reference.

 

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Website, Blog or Twitter Posting

Choose a specific source type from the list:

More in-text citation information


Website

MLA Handbook 5.6.2


Works Cited Format
:


In-text Citation:

Name of Author, Compiler or Editor. Title of Work (italicize the title if the

work stands alone, or put the title in quotation marks if

the work is part of a larger whole). Title of Website (if

different from the Title of Work). Version or Edition of

Site. Publisher or Sponsor (if unknown, use N.p.), Day

Month Year of Publication (if unknown, use n.d.). Web.

Day Month Year Accessed.

Milburn, John. "Declassified Ike Documents Show Policy Challenges."

Yahoo! News. Yahoo!, 29 July 2009. Web. 29 July 2009.

Note: If some of the citation information is missing, use what is available.

John Milburn reports on the newly declassified documents from Dwight Eisenhower's presidency.

 

Note: If an electronic source does not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or another type of reference marker, cite the entire work. It is best to include the author's/editor's name in the text of your document rather than using a parenthetical reference.

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Blog Posting

MLA Handbook 5.6.2


Works Cited Format
:


In-text Citation:

Name of Author. Title of Work [italicize the title if the work stands alone,

or put the title in quotation marks if the work is part of a

larger whole]. Title of Blog [if different from the Title of

Work]. Version or Edition of Site. Publisher or Sponsor

[if unknown, use N.p.], Day Month Year of Publication [if

unknown, use n.d.]. Web. Day Month Year Accessed.

Pritchard, Jessica. "Inuit Contact: An Arctic Culture Teaching

Resource." American Historical Association Blog.

American Historical Association, 15 Nov. 2009. Web. 25

Jan. 2010.

Note: If some citation information is missing, use what is available

 

Jessica Pritchard gives a favorable review of the Inuit Heritage Trust's web resources for teachers.

 

Note: When citing an electronic source that does not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or another type of reference marker, it is preferable to include the author's name in the text of your document rather than in a parenthetical reference.

 

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Twitter Posting

From MLA website and OWL at Purdue website


Works Cited Format
:


In-text Citation:

Author's Last Name, First Name (username). "Text of Tweet."

Day month year of tweet, time of tweet. Tweet.

Brokaw, Tom (tombrokaw). "SC demonstrated why all the debates

are the engines of this campaign." 22 Jan. 2012,

3:06 a.m. Tweet.

 

(Brokaw)


E-mail, List-serv or Personal Communication

Choose a specific source type from the list:

More in-text citation information


E-mail

MLA Handbook 5.7.13


Works Cited Format
:


In-text Citation:

E-mail Author's Last Name, E-mail Author's First Name. "Title of

Message." [taken from subject line of e-mail] Message

to Recipient's Name. Date of E-mail. E-mail.

Roberts, Cynthia. "Re: Rare Book Bindings." Message to the author. 6

Dec. 2006. E-mail.

Or:

Smith, Barbara. "Re: Still-life Painting." Message to Janet Cummings. 6

Dec. 2006. E-mail.

In her e-mail to me, Cynthia Roberts describes leather bindings made before 1830.

 

Note: When citing an electronic source that does not have page numbers, it is preferable to include the author's name in the text of your document rather than in a parenthetical reference.

 

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Electronic Mailing List (List-serv)

Note: MLA does not provide specific guidance on how to cite Electronic Mailing lists, but the library suggests that you cite below based on guidelines for similar citations.


Works Cited Format
:


In-text Citation:

Message Author's Last Name, Message Author's First Name. "Title of

Message." [taken from subject line of message]. Msg

[Message number]. Message posted to [Name of

Electronic mailing list]. Date of Posting. Electronic

Mailing List. Archived at [URL].

Abungu, Lorna. "Valuing ethnographic objects." [Msg 155]. Message

posted to ICME electronic mailing list. 13 Apr. 2007.

Electronic mailing list. Archived at http://groups.yahoo.com/group/icme/message/155

In an electronic mailing list message, Lorna Abungu explains that she is working in a Community Museum in rural Kenya...

 

Note: When citing an electronic source that does not have page numbers, it is preferable to include the author's name in the text of your document rather than in a parenthetical reference.

 

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Personal Communication

MLA 5.7.13


Works Cited Format
:


In-text Citation:

Letter Author's Last Name, Letter Author's First Name. Letter to the

author. Date of Letter. Medium of Delivery.

Carroll, Jonathan. Letter to the author. 6 Jun 2012. TS.

Note: Medium of delivery can be TS (typescript, a work prepared by a machine), or MS (manuscript, a work written by hand).

Jonathan Carroll wrote in a letter...

Note: The Reference List format example to the left is only one page long; therefore, the entire work is cited. When citing an entire work, it is preferable to include the author's name in the text of your document rather than parenthetical reference.

 

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Audio/Video

Choose a specific source type from the list:

More in-text citation information


Online Video

MLA Handbook 5.6.2.d and 5.7.3


Works Cited Format
:


In-text Citation:

Title of Movie. Screenplay by Name of Writer. Dir. Name of Director.

Perf. Names of Performers. Name of Distributer, Original

Release Date. Title of Website. Web. Day Month Year Accessed.

Rear Window. Screenplay by John Michael Hayes. Dir. Alfred Hitchcock.

Perf. James Stewart and Grace Kelly. Paramount

Pictures, 1954. YouTube. Web. 24 March 2008.

Hitchcock, Alfred, dir. Rear Window. Screenplay by John Michael Hayes.

Perf. James Stewart and Grace Kelly. Paramount

Pictures, 1954. YouTube. Web. 24 March 2008.

Note: If citing the contribution of a specific person, start the work cited entry with that person's name.

Rear Window is Alfred Hitchcock's greatest thriller.

 

Note: When citing a non-print source, such as a film clip, it is preferable to include the director's name in the text of your document rather than in a parenthetical reference.

 

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Motion Picture

MLA Handbook 5.7.3


Works Cited Format
:


In-text Citation:

Title of Movie. Screenplay by Name of Writer. Dir. Name of Director.

Perf. Names of Performers. Original Release Date.

Name of Distributer, Release Date. Medium.

Rear Window. Screenplay by John Michael Hayes. Dir. Alfred Hitchcock.

Perf. James Stewart and Grace Kelly. 1954. Universal

Pictures, 2001. DVD.

Hitchcock, Alfred, dir. Rear Window. Screenplay by John Michael Hayes.

Perf. James Stewart and Grace Kelly. 1954. Universal

Pictures, 2001. DVD.

Note: If citing the contribution of a specific person, start the work cited entry with that person's name.

Rear Window is Alfred Hitchcock's greatest thriller.

 

Note: When citing a non-print source, such as a motion picture, it is preferable to include the director's name in the text of your document rather than in a parenthetical reference.

 

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Television Episode

MLA Handbook 5.7.1


Works Cited Format
:


In-text Citation:

"Title of episode." Title of Program. Name of Network [if any]. Call

letters and city of local station [if any]. Broadcast Date. Medium.

"Land of Plenty, Land of Want." Journey to Planet Earth. PBS. 1999.

Television.

In the episode "Land of Plenty"...

Note: The full title can be included if it is short, otherwise an abbreviated version is acceptable. When abbreviating, begin with the word by which it is alphabetized.

 

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Television Series

Note: MLA does not provide specific guidance on how to cite Television Series, but the library suggests that you cite as described below based on guidelines for similar citations.


Works Cited Format
:


In-text Citation:

Title of Program. Name of Network [if any]. Call letters and city of local

station [if any]. Broadcast Date. Medium.

Journey to Planet Earth. PBS. 1999. Television.

In the series Journey to Planet Earth...

Note: The full title can be included if it is short, otherwise an abbreviated version is acceptable. When abbreviating, begin with the word by which it is alphabetized.

 

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Recorded Music-Individual Tracks

MLA Handbook 5.7.2


Works Cited Format
:


In-text Citation:

Name of Composer, Conductor or Performer [depends on your

emphasis]. "Title of Specific Piece." Perf. Performers'

Names [use only if different from the name(s) listed at

the beginning of the entry]. Title of Recording. Name of

Manufacturer, Year of Issue [if unknown, put n.d.]. Medium.

Dylan, Bob. "All Along the Watchtower." Perf. Jimi Hendrix. Electric

Ladyland. MCA, 1993. CD.

Note: For musical works that are identified by form, number or key, do not enclose the title in quotation marks (see MLA Handbook 3.6.5).

Jimi Hendrix gives a famous performance of Dylan's "All Along the Watchtower" on the album Electric Ladyland.

 

Note: When citing a non-print source, it is preferable to include the author's name in the text of your document rather than in a parenthetical reference.

 

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Recorded Music-Entire Album

MLA Handbook 5.7.2


Works Cited Format
:


In-text Citation:

Name of Composer, Conductor or Performer [depends on your

emphasis]. Title of Recording. Perf. Performers' Names

[use only if different from the name(s) listed at the

beginning of the entry]. Name of Manufacturer, Year of

Issue [if unknown, put n.d.]. Medium.

Horowitz, Vladimir. The Last Recording. Sony Classical, 1990. CD.

Vladimir Horowitz gave memorable performances on his album entitled The Last Recording.

Note: When citing a non-print source, it is preferable to include the author's name in the text of your document rather than in a parenthetical reference.

 

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Image or Advertisement

Choose a specific source type from the list:

More in-text citation information


Online Images

MLA Handbook 5.6.2.d


Works Cited Format
:


In-text Citation:

Artist's Last Name, Artist's First Name. Title of Work. Date. Name of

Institution Where the Work Resides. Title of Website or

Database. Web. Day Month Year Accessed.

Hopper, Edward. Early Sunday Morning. 1930. Whitney Museum of

American Art. The Whitney's Collection. Web. 27 July 2009.

Edward Hopper's Early Morning Sunday shows a street scene with no human figures.

Note: When citing a non-print source, it is preferable to include the author's name in the text of your document rather than in a parenthetical reference.


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Work of Art

MLA Handbook 5.7.6


Works Cited Format
:


In-text Citation:

Artist's Last Name, Artist's First Name. Title of Work of Art. Date.

Medium. Name of Institution Where the Work Resides, City.

Hopper, Edward. Railroad Sunset. 1929. Oil on canvas. Whitney

Museum of American Art, New York.

Note: If the work is in a private collection, give the name of the collection in place of the institution name. If the collector is unknown or anonymous write Private Collection and leave off the city name.

Edward Hopper's 1929 landscape Railroad Sunset is similar to his other landscape paintings.

Note: When citing a non-print source, it is preferable to include the author's name in the text of your document rather than in a parenthetical reference.

 

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Advertisement

MLA Handbook 5.7.10


Works Cited Format
:


In-text Citation:

Product, Company, or Institution Name. Advertisement. Name of

Publication Date: Page Number. Medium.

Banana Republic. Advertisement. InStyle Oct. 2006: 51. Print.

(Banana Republic 51)

 

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Indirect Sources

MLA Handbook 6.4.7 & 6.5.1

 


Works Cited Format
:


In-text Citation:

If what you quote or paraphrase is itself a quotation, put the abbreviation qtd. in ("quoted in") before the indirect source you cite in your parenthetical reference.

In the Reference List cite the indirect source as you normally would:

Boswell, James. The Life of Johnson. Ed. George Birkbeck Hill and L.F.

Powell. 6 vols. Oxford: Clarendon, 1934-50. Print.

Notes:

  • Whenever you can, take material from the original source, not a secondhand one.
  • You may document the original source in a Note explaining why you worked from the secondary material.

Samuel Johnson admitted that Edmund Burke was an "extraordinary man" (qtd. in Boswell 2:450).

 

More in-text citation information


In-Text Citation Examples

 


One Author

MLA Handbook 6.2

(Author's Last Name Page Number(s))

(Zelizer 3-4)

 

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Two Authors

MLA Handbook 6.2

(First Author's Last Name and Second Author's Last Name Page Number(s))

(Mock and Parker 73)

 

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Three Authors

MLA Handbook 6.2

(First Author's Last Name, Second Author's Last Name, and Third Author's Last Name Page Number(s))

(Garner, Smith, and Piland 102)

 

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More than 3 Authors

MLA Handbook 6.2

Note: For a work with more than three authors, you may give the first author's last name followed by et al., or you may list all the authors' last names. Follow the form you used for your bibliographic entry. For instance, if you listed all the names in your bibliographic entry, then list all the names in your parenthetical reference.

(First Author's Last Name et al. Page Number(s))

(Dasco et al. 122)

Or

(First Author's Last Name, Second Author's Last Name, Third Author's Last Name, Fourth Author's Last Name, Fifth Author's Last Name and Sixth Author's Last Name Page Number(s))

(Dasco, Dasco, Brelhan, Harlow, Jaffee-Neer, Rumsey, and Wittels 122)

 

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Unknown Author

MLA Handbook 6.2 and 6.4.4

(Title of Work Page Number(s))

(Merriam-Webster's Thesaurus 206)

Note: A title that is long can be given in a shortened form.

 

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Authors with the Same Last Name

MLA Handbook 6.2

(Author's First Initial. Author's Last Name Page Number(s))

(B. Zelizer 3-4)

Note: If two authors have the same first initials, use the authors' full first names in the parenthetical references.

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Multiple Works by the Same Author

MLA Handbook 6.4.6

(Author's Last Name, Shortened Title Page Number(s))

(Zelizer, Remembering to Forget 3-4)

(Zelizer, Visual Culture 115-21)

 

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Multiple Works in the Same Parenthesis

MLA Handbook 6.4.9

(Author's Last Name Page Number; Author's Last Name Page Number; Author's Last Name Page Number)

(Zelizer 11; Alberro xvii; Ellis 338)

 

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Indirect Sources

MLA Handbook 6.4.7

Note: An indirect source is a source that quotes or paraphrases another source. An example would be Sontag's On Photography cited in Zelizer's book Remembering to Forget, and you have no read Sontag. In the text of the paper, name the original source of information, and in the parenthetical reference use qtd. in (quoted in) before the indirect source.

(qtd. in Author of Indirect Source Page Number(s))

Sontag writes...(qtd. in Zelizer 11)

 

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Bible

MLA Handbook 6.4.8

Note: The Bible is not typically included in a Works Cited list, only in in-text citations. The first time you cite the Bible, italicize the version of the Bible you are using, then include book, chapter and verse. For all subsequent citations using the same version, leave out the version name. The book name may be abbreviated if they have a longer title (ex. Gen instead of Genesis).

(King James Bible John 3.2-5)

Or (for subsequent in-text citations)

(John 3.2-5)

 

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Other Resources

For more examples and information on how to format your paper

Online Resource

Print Resource

  • MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7th ed., Ref. LB 2369.G53 2009

For additional help, contact a Reference Librarian

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